Are electric bikes and scooters legal in the UK? The law explained
Confused about UK electric bike laws and regulations that extend to motorcycles, scooters and mopeds? We explain all here
The current electrification revolution in the passenger-car industry is being mirrored in the two-wheeled world. Manufacturers of bikes, scooters, mopeds and motorbikes are all turning to zero-emissions electric power as the future of transport – and urban transport in particular – has to be green.
But while the place of electric cars on the UK's roads is clear-cut, the laws and regulations that apply to smaller two and three-wheeled plug-in vehicles aren't quite as straightforward.
So if you've been left scratching you head about the legal status of using such vehicles in the UK, the guide we've prepared below should clear up any doubt as to where you can ride and what you need to do to in order to avoid falling on the wrong side of the law.
Commuter saviours or the scourge of the city? We’ll let you decide, but the rules are pretty clear. Electric scooters fall under the Government’s ‘powered transporters’ or Personal Light Electric Vehicles (PLEV) category – a term that covers a variety of ‘novel transport devices’. This includes Segways, hoverboards, go-peds and powered unicycles.
Despite the rising popularity of e-scooters, the law is clear on their use. They're classified as motor vehicles and it’s therefore illegal to ride them on the road without tax, insurance, lights and number plates. Complying with this is practically impossible, however – try finding an insurer to cover you, for a start. It’s also illegal to use e-scooters on footpaths, cycle lanes and bridleways. The only place they can be ridden legally is on private land with the landowner's permission. Those caught riding illegally can be given a £300 fixed-penalty notice and six points on their driving licence (if they have one).
It's important to note that while the use of electric scooters is technically illegal both on the road and pavement, the government is starting look at trial rental schemes in major cities. A change in the law will be required to allow e-scooters to legally take to UK roads or pavements; it's likely that scooters will end up being speed-limited, but riders will not be required to wear helmets.
Electric mopeds and motorbikes
Electric motorbikes, like conventionally powered motorbikes and mopeds, are categorised by power and speed and different laws apply for different kinds of bikes. The same rules apply to tricycles and light quadricycles.
15.5mph or less
If an electric motorbike or moped has pedals, a maximum top speed of 15.5mph and a motor with an output of less than 250W, it's treated the same as an eBike. This means you can legally ride one anywhere you can ride a normal bicycle. You don’t need a car or bike licence, a number plate, tax disc or MOT. The rider needs to be over 14 years of age.
28mph or less
The next category deals with bikes restricted to a top speed of 28mph. The law treats these the same as 50cc scooters, so riders must wear a helmet, the bike must be registered for tax (but road tax is free for electric bikes), wear a number plate and have an MoT once it hits three years old. You can’t ride these vehicles on motorways or in cycle lanes.
To ride one, you need to be at least 16 years old and have a provisional driving licence. You also need to take a CBT test and put L-plates on your bike, and you can’t carry a passenger. If you passed your driving test before 2001, you don’t need to sit a CBT or display L-plates.
Electric motorbikes and mopeds qualify for a government low-emissions plug-in vehicle grant. The grant gives you 20% off the cost of a brand-new motorbike or moped, capped at a maximum of £1,500.
28mph+ electric motorbikes and mopeds
For bikes with a top speed faster than 28mph and a power output of 11kW (125cc) or less, riders need a full driving licence and must pass a CBT test every two years. You also have to display L-plates on your bike.
Moving up to higher-output electric bikes, riders need to gain the appropriate motorbike licence for the size of bike they want to ride. They can do this in one of two ways; by taking a direct access course or progressing through the licences as they gain experience.
The motorbike licence categories are:
• AM licence: 16 and over can ride an electric bike with a top speed of no more than 28mph • A1 licence: 17 and over for an electric bike up to 11kW, the equivalent of a 125cc bike • A2 licence: 19 and over for a bike up to 35kW • A licence: 24 and over. Any sized bike
We've even made a list of the best electric motorbikes available right now, if you're thinking at getting one.
eBikes, or to give them their official name, Electrically Assisted Pedal Cycles, are legal to ride in England, Scotland and Wales as long as they meet certain requirements and you're over 14 years of age. As the law stands, an eBike must have pedals that propel it, an electric motor that won’t assist you beyond 15.5mph and a battery pack that doesn’t exceed 250W of power.
They don't qualify for a Government grant, but you can make substantial savings through the Cycle to Work scheme, which has now removed its £1,000 cap. You don’t need a licence to ride one and it doesn’t need to be registered, taxed or insured. You can ride an eBike anywhere you can legally ride a conventional bicycle.
There is a but, of course. If you go for one of the faster S-pedelec bikes, with a top speed of 28mph and a more powerful motor, things become more complicated. In the government’s eyes, this is effectively a moped and can’t be ridden in cycle lanes.
You also need a driving licence, a number plate, insurance and tax for an S-pedelec. Tax is free, but you still have to register the bike to keep within the law. You’ll also need a kite-marked motorbike-style helmet and an MoT after the bike is three years old. If you passed your driving test before 2001, you don’t need to take a CBT test. If you did so after this date, you do.
In Northern Ireland, slightly different rules apply: all eBikes – regardless of power output or top speed – are classified as mopeds and require you to follow the rules set out for mopeds and motorbikes with a top speed up to 28mph.
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